Kishanganj district is one of the thirty-eight districts of the state of Bihar, India. It’s the administrative headquarters of this district. It is one of the fastest growing semi-urban conglomerations in Bihar. It was an important part of Purnia division. The District came into existence on 14th January 1990 after a long and hard struggle of seventeen years by the people of Kishanganj including social workers, politicians, journalists, businessmen and farmers etc.
In the ancient times, Kishangang was a part of the Mithila region. Indo - Aryan people established the Mithila Kingdom which was also called Kingdom of the Videhas. During the late Vedic period i.e., 1100–500 BC Kingdom of the Videhas became one of the major political and cultural centres of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pachala.
The kings of the Kingdom of the Videhas were known as Janakas. The Mithila Kingdom was later incorporated into the Vajji confederacy, which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also in Mithila. This region was also called Nepalgarh. On arrival of Mughal this place was captured and named Alamganj. Ganj as the suffix of Kishanganj means a place used for marketing place. So, during Mughal times it was a centre for trade and business.
It is said that during the period of Khagada Nawab, Mohammed Fakiruddin, one hindu saint arrived and wanted to rest at this place as he was very tired , but he refused to enter the place when he heard that the place's name was Alamganj, the river name was Ramzan and the Jamindar name was Fakiruddin. When the Nawab heard about this, he decided and announced that some portion from Kishanganj Gudri to Ramzan pool gandhi ghat will be named as Krishna-Kunj. With the passing of the time the name got converted to present Kishanganj.
Historically, both in times of Mughal and British period this place served as one of the important place for trade and administration.
Kishanganj district occupies an area of 1,884 square kilometres. It is surrounded by Araria district in the west, Purnia district in the south-west, Uttar Dinajpur district of West Bengal on the east, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nepal on the north. A narrow strip of West Bengal, about 20 km wide separates it from Bangladesh. It is located between 250 20’ and 260 30’ north latitudes, and 870 7’ and 880 19’ east longitudes. Major rivers flowing through the district are Kankai, Mahananda, Donk, Mechi, Ratua and Ramzan Sudhani. The district comprises of only one sub-division- Kishanganj, which is further divided into seven blocks: Bhahadurganj, Dighalbank, Kishanganj, Kochadhaman, Pothia, Terhagachha, Thakurgunj. Kishanganj is the only tea producing district in Bihar.
According to the 2011 census Kishanganj district has a population of 1,690,948. The district has a population density of 898 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,330/sq. mi) out of which there are 55,688 male and 51,388 female with an average literacy rate of both male and female is 64.24%. Most of the people live in villages where the majority of the population are muslims that is 68% of the population. The Hindus here are Surajpuris or Rajbanshi. Most of the inhabitants of Kishanganj speak Urdu, Maithili, Surajpuri, Hindi, Bengali and Santali as their first language.
Kishanganj is well connected through road, railways and airways networks. Kishanganj railway station belongs to Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR). The National Highway no. 31 also passes through Kishanganj. The Northeastern region of India is connected to the rest of India through the railway station and NH 31 National Highway. There are direct trains from its railway station to major cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Patna, Kolkata, Guwahati, Bangalore, Chennai, and Trivandrum. Rajdhani Express has also its stoppage in Kishanganj which runs between New Delhi and Guwahati. The starting train from Kishanganj is Garib Nawaz for Ajmer. NH 31 is one of the important and busiest highways in India. The nearest airport is Bagdogra Airport. It is an international airport in the adjacent Darjeeling District of West Bengal at a distance of 60 kilometres from Kishanganj.